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Tue, Jan. 19

A look back at how Jerome, Verde Valley dealt with 1918 pandemic

Main Street Jerome, 1918. Photo courtesy Jerome Historical Society.

Main Street Jerome, 1918. Photo courtesy Jerome Historical Society.

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Main Street Jerome, 1918. Photo courtesy Jerome Historical Society.

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Main Street Jerome, 1918. Photo courtesy Jerome Historical Society.

1918 Influenza Pandemic: Jerome Quarantine and Masks

The first case of influenza on October 4 was followed by the discontinuance of public gatherings, a strict quarantine of the town on October 15, and an order for all people to wear masks. Quarantine was lifted on November 11, but the mask order continued.

Information about the alarming spread of influenza across the country appeared almost daily in the local newspapers. Across the United States in 25 army camps 20,211 soldiers were sick with another 2,225 new cases and the "Arizona Republican" reported that Dr. O. H. Brown, state health officer, and Dr. Frederic T. Fahline, of the United States Army, were observing the first cases of influenza at Phoenix on September 25. There were over 175,000 soldiers and civilians infected with influenza, with 105,000 cases in the army camps by October 4. Unofficial figures indicated that there was 1 death in every 27 cases. The first case of influenza at Jerome was diagnosed on October 4, and there were 9 more cases the following day. Health officers responded immediately. The "Verde Copper News summarized the situation 7 weeks later.

"Not a few of the good citizens of Jerome felt a few weeks ago that the restrictions imposed by the health authorities in the way of quarantine, the closing of churches, schools, theaters, pool halls, and other places where people congregate and, above all, the wearing of uncomfortable masks, were an excess of caution not warranted by the seriousness of the influenza danger."

"A consideration of the conditions existing today in the cities and towns which failed to adopt these stringent precautions should be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that our health authorities knew exactly what they were doing and the camp has escaped with much less loss of life than would have occurred had we done as Phoenix and other place did --- making light of the danger and failing to take the necessary preventative measures in time."

"When one considers that the crowded condition of Jerome is particularly favorable to the spread of infectious disease and that the great majority of deaths were due to patients waiting too long before seeking treatment, we have every reason to congratulate ourselves that we escaped so lightly as we have done and to be thankful that we have men at the head of the health department who are able to recognize the impending danger and brave enough to enforce the necessary steps to render influenza as little fatal as was possible."

"The camp is almost free of contagion now and it remains for us to all continue the strictest precautions until every trace of the plague has been stamped out."

(Verde Copper News; Friday, November 22, 1918.)

The United Verde Copper Company had taken over their new hospital (#3) above Clark Street on February 1, 1918. Within 2 weeks it became "the most beautiful and best equipped hospital in Arizona. ...From the kitchen to the operating room everything was the very best that modern science could devise and money could buy." The second floor had four 8-bed wards and six 1-bed wards and two surgical wards. There were offices for Dr. Lee Perry Kaull, hospital superintendent and head physician (who had moved into the neighboring "Surgeons House" in 1917), Dr. Louis Walsh, resident surgeon (who had an apartment in the hospital), and Dr. Arthur Charles Carlson, chief assistant (who was acting superintendent and head physician from June until Captain L. P. Kaull returned from army duty). The Isolation Building, to be used during epidemics, etc., was constructed south of the hospital. (Verde Copper News; January 19, 1918.)

THE SITUATION AT JEROME

Propaganda Circulated, Labor Problems Continued: The well-known "Jerome Deportation" removed 72 members and sympathizers of the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W. or "Wobblies") from town on July 10, 1917. Others voluntarily left the area or moved to neighboring towns. Officers raided camps and homes occupied by I.W.W. members on September 6. Propaganda was circulated, meetings were held, and problems between management and labor unions continued. A Jerome man was tarred and feathered on March 27, 1918. An I.W.W. agitator arrived on the train with 30,000 handbills calling for a general strike of 2 weeks' duration beginning September 10.

Many Workers Left the Jerome Area: German propaganda informed Mexican miners that they would be drafted for military service unless they returned to Mexico. Mining officials and others tried to convince them to stay, but many experienced miners deserted their jobs and fled to Mexico. (Verde Copper News; September 7, 1918.) Many men were drafted or volunteered their services during World War I. Men were also recruited by the U.S. Department of Labor to construct a powder plant at Nitro, West Virginia. On September 9, 165 men left Jerome, about 100 more had left by the 16th, and 40 left on the 17th. (Verde Copper News; September 9, 16, 17, 1918.)

The United Verde Copper Company extensively remodeled their old hospital (#2) into a boarding house designed to accommodate 57 employees (later, called the "Hampton House"). Rooms occupied by 1 man were $12 a month; rooms occupied by 2 men were $10 each a month. By that time many single men had left town, so there were only a few requests for rooms. (Verde Copper News; September 16, 1918.)

Population: According to the 1920 Census, the number of people living in the incorporated Town of Jerome was 4,030. Many more people lived nearby in "the Gulch," near the United Verde Extension, north of town and south of town. Based on food rationing cards during August of 1918, administrators estimated the population of the Verde District as 20,000, with 9,000 people in the Jerome area, 4,400 people in the Clarkdale area, 2,300 people in the Verde/Clemenceau area, and 1,700 people in the Cottonwood area. (Verde Independent; October 20, 2009.) According to historian Herbert V. Young, "Jerome suffered at least 75 deaths from the disease. ... Cases continued to appear well into the spring of 1919." ("They Came to Jerome;" 1972; p.42.)

September 23: Horace Harrison, acting head watchman at the United Verde mine was murdered on the railroad tracks near the station at 12:45 a.m. Minutes later Deputy U. S. Marshal Harry Carlson responded to several shots back of Hotel Jerome, then chased a man to the primary school grounds. In a gun battle there Carlson was shot in the leg. City Marshal J. G. Crowley was shot 4 times, and deputy Sheriff Fred Hawkins shot and killed the gunman. (Verde Copper News; September 23, 1918.) The officers recovered.

Lieutenant Colonel George W. Beiglar, of the First Cavalry, arrived on September 24 to investigate the situation at Jerome. The following day a suitcase containing 9 home-made dynamite bombs was found under a house, and 3 other bombs were discovered. A wire was sent to the War Department requesting that soldiers be sent to serve as military guards for the mines at Jerome and smelters at Clarkdale and Verde/Clemenceau. They arrived on the train at Clarkdale on the evening of September 26. (Verde Copper News; September 26, 1918.)

"The United States uniform is a familiar sight on the streets of Jerome. A detachment including 2 officers and 50 enlisted men of the 22nd Battalion, United States Guards, is quartered in the old United Verde hospital building, recently remodeled." ... The officers and men were honored with a dance at the Opera House on the evening of September 28. (Verde Copper News; September 27, 28, 1918.)

On the evening of October 3, the War Department orders arrived for "Lieutenant Burns, in command of the detachment of United States Guards. Soldiers were forbidden to mingle in any gathering of 25 or more citizens lest they catch influenza." (Verde Copper News; October 4, 1918.)

INFLUENZA APPEARS OCT. 4; DR. CARLSON BANS PUBLIC GATHERINGS OCT. 5

"The first case of influenza was brought to Dr. Carlson's attention yesterday. By today at noon he had 10 patients in the Isolation Building at the United Verde hospital." Of these, 2 had already "developed pneumonia, the final and dangerous stage of influenza. Acting under instructions from Dr. John Flinn, county health officer, City Health Officer, A. C. Carlson, today ordered the discontinuance, until further notice, of all public gatherings of every kind. Moving picture shows were ordered closed. There will be no dances and crowds will not be allowed to congregate on the streets until the danger is past. Proprietors of poolrooms were notified not to allow crowds to gather in those resorts. Dr. Carlson has notified all physicians in the city to be on the lookout for symptoms of influenza and report suspicious cases to him at once." (Verde Copper News; Saturday, October 5, 1918.)

October 7: "There are approximately 20 cases of influenza in Jerome today. Only 3 cases have developed into pneumonia. Of these 2 are under detention at the United Verde hospital and the other patient is being attended at his home by Dr. Riley Shrum. There have been no deaths from influenza. The schools [which had an August enrollment of about 700] are closed. Card playing is forbidden. People are urged to avoid forming large or small groups on the streets. In Clarkdale the same precautions have been taken under the direction of the county health officer," Dr. Sult. (Verde Copper News; October 7, 1918.)

DOCTORS, NURSES, and HOSPITALS

Dr. Shrum and other physicians had private practices at Jerome. The most well-known was Dr. Charles Winter Woods, who became the first United Verde Copper Company physician in 1894, and was in charge of their new 3-story hospital (#1) before it burned in 1898. The next hospital (#2), a 4-story structure accommodating 100 patients, was built in 1899 (remodeled and housing soldiers in 1918). Dr. Woods, chief surgeon, was joined by his friend, Dr. Fenn J. Hart, and Dr. L. P. Kaull. During 1899, the hospital was treating 1,500 to 1,700 patients a month. Dr. Woods resigned in 1906. During the 1918 influenza epidemic he worked tirelessly caring for patients in their homes. (See: "Jerome Takes Its Medicine;" by Russell Wahmann.)

"Dr. Louis Walsh was in charge of the Emergency Hospital until he became ill. ... If he had influenza at all the attack was so mild that it could hardly be classed as such. He did, however, suffer a breakdown from overwork but he is now practically well." (Verde Copper News; November 2, 1918.)

The United Verde hospital was always a busy place providing routine and emergency services, a maternity ward, and operating rooms, etc., before the epidemic began. Cecilia "Barkie" Barker, (whose father served during the South African and Crimean Wars, had been an orderly for Miss Florence Nightengale) a trained nurse, joined the staff during March. (Verde Independent; November 4, 1970.)

"Another Red Cross nurse ... made her appearance at the United Verde hospital and placed herself under the chaperonage of Mrs. W. R. Hughes" on September 27. (Verde Copper News; September 27, 1918.)

"Miss Minnie L. Michelson and Miss Lillian A. Wadin, teachers in the public schools, who volunteered their services as nurses at the outbreak of the epidemic, who both suffered slight attacks of influenza, are completely recovered and reported for further duty at the hospital." (Verde Copper News; November 8, 1918.)

Still recovering in a private room was one of the officers shot on September 23 (who was released after October 11). The first new patients needing isolation were contractor William B. Arndt (who had driven the huge Marion steam shovel to Jerome) with typhoid fever (who recovered) followed a few days later by an engineer (Shea Copper Company) with typhoid-pneumonia (who died). There was also a man with advanced tuberculosis (who died).

The Temporary Hospital has been set up in 3 of the Annex buildings at the public school. (Verde Copper News; October 14, 1918.) Also called the Emergency Hospital, it eventually occupied 5 buildings and the main school building. Dr. Carlson had closed 3 of the outside buildings by November 6, leaving 2 and the main building. The Emergency Hospital was closed on November 15.

The Mines: "At Jerome, the United Verde Copper Company operated with 1,200 employees and the United Verde Extension Mining Company operated with 489 employees. Both needed more employees to keep up with the demand for copper during the war." (Verde Copper News; October 11, 1918.)

LOCAL OPINIONS

The "Verde Copper News" ran 2 columns with comments about the war, national and local politics, and conditions at Jerome, including the epidemic.

"Min's Muck: See by the papers that, to stop the Spanish floo, we've got to stop kissin'. Don't know how bad the floo gets a feller but, unless it's sudden death, I'm due to take a chance." (Verde Copper News; October 8, 1918.)

"Min's Muck: Seems as if the fates are against my ever gettin' to church. Here I was all fixed up to turn out at least twice on Sunday, and along comes Doc. Carlson and shuts all the churches up. And it's probably the only time I could have made it in another year." (Verde Copper News; Friday, October 11, 1918.)

October 14: "Fewer cases have been reported today than at any time since the disease made its initial appearance and the greatest majority of the 125 or more who are known to have been affected by the disease are on their way to a normal recovery." A couple and a miner have died. The United Verde hospital is crowded to the limit with influenza and other cases. "The soda fountains and soft drink stands were closed this morning and the police received orders to permit no gatherings of groups on the streets. A general 'clean up' campaign is to begin tomorrow." (Verde Copper News; October 14, 1918.)

CAMP IS UNDER QUARANTINE OF STRICT SEVERITY OCTOBER 15.

"One man came in by train last night in the last stages of pneumonia. He was hardly able to get off the train and onto the bus. He was rushed to the hospital," but his case was hopeless and he died. His presence on the train and "bus constituted a danger to everyone with whom he came in contact."

"Jerome is under a complete quarantine. No one is allowed to enter the town or to depart from it without a special permit from the health authorities and permits are granted in case of urgent necessity. The United Verde and Pacific Railroad was notified last night by County Health Officer Dr. John W. Flinn that the town has been quarantined and no passengers will be taken out or brought in until further notice unless they have permission from the health authorities."

"It is expected that guards will be placed on all roads leading into the camp and that none will be permitted to pass without the proper health credentials." This prevented automobile, pedestrian, and other traffic.."

"Dr. Flinn expressed himself this morning as amazed at the slight progress the disease has made here, considering the crowded condition of the camp. The number of new cases is showing a most gratifying decrease and it is believed that not more than 75 cases are now in the hospitals or at private homes. A number of complete recoveries were reported." Of the 6 deaths reported, 2 were recent arrivals.

(Verde Copper News; October 15, 1918.)

October 16: "There are now 41 patients at the Temporary Hospital at the public school and the United Verde hospital is filled to capacity. ... The officers urge that every citizen take the greatest care to avoid crowds and the possibility of infection. It is hoped that the special appeal to parents to keep their children off the streets will be heeded carefully." (Verde Copper News; Wednesday, October 16, 1918.)

October 17: "Practically all the cases that have resulted fatally were not cared for until it was too late and it is part of common sense and self-interest, to say nothing of good citizenship, to secure proper attention at the very outset of the disease. When this is done the chances of a serious termination are reduced to practically zero while, if the disease is allowed to run without attention, results may be fatal." (Verde Copper News; October 17, 1918.)

"An unknown man this afternoon made 2 attempts to break through the quarantine picket between here and Clarkdale. The soldiers warned him back once, and when he repeated his attempt arrested him and brought him to the town jail." (Verde Copper News; Wednesday, October 23, 1918.)

THE RED CROSS

The American Red Cross had been an active organization at Jerome for many months before the national organization announcement on October 7, about their intention to assist in combatting the influenza and pneumonia epidemic with their accumulated hospital supplies, volunteers, and nurses, in co-operation with the public health service and state health boards. Nurses and volunteers would visit homes and care for the sick. In homes where mothers were ill they would assume child care and management of the household. (Weekly Journal-Miner; Prescott; October 9, 1918.)

Health authorities had advised sick people and anyone taking care of sick people to wear a gauze mask. Appropriate gauze masks, made by Red Cross volunteers, were sold elsewhere for 10 cents. At Jerome, "the members of the local Red Cross have made a number of masks for use in fighting the influenza epidemic and will be only too glad to furnish the same to those who will use them. A number of people have asked for masks and obtained them and then have neglected to use them --- a practice which is not only dangerous to themselves but which constitutes a waste of valuable material. Any who really want the masks for USE will be supplied on application to Red Cross headquarters." (Verde Copper News; October 17, 1918.)

After the mask order became effective, the Jerome Red Cross made and sold $1,600 worth of influenza masks. By the end of the year "gross returns from the sale of masks by the Jerome Red Cross during the epidemic were in excess of $1,725.45." (Benson Signal; December 14, 28, 1918.)

MASKS

On October 14, a Jerome newspaper reporter wrote, "Yesterday, several persons who later became ill and who were capable of conveying the infection to any with whom they came in contact, were seen early in the day mingling freely with friends and acquaintances and, unknowingly, aiding in the spread of the epidemic." (Verde Copper News; Monday, October 14, 1918.)

On an unknown date after October 18, Jerome residents were required to wear masks. Care for the Red Cross masks included boiling them for 10 minutes after each use.

1918 Influenza Pandemic: Jerome Quarantine and Masks

Probably, the Jerome mask order was similar to the Clarkdale mask order. "The health authorities this morning issued an order requiring everyone appearing on the streets and public places of the town to wear an approved influenza mask. The enforcement of this order has been placed in the hands of R. C. Lane and he states that no exceptions will be made to the rule. Offenders will be arrested, no matter who they may be, and a fine of $10 will be imposed for the first offense. For the second, the fine will be raised to $50 and there will be added confinement to the common jail for a period of 30 days." (Verde Copper News; November 13, 1918.)

At Phoenix, the order was more formal. "NOTICE is hereby given that by order of the City Board of Health that after 6:00 A.M. November 27th, 1918, and during the continuation of the epidemic of influenza in the city, and until further order, no person shall frequent the streets, business houses or other public or semi-public places within the City of Phoenix, unless a gauze mask is worn over the nose and mouth in such a manner that the act of breathing is done through such mask. The above order is promulgated in accordance with provisions of paragraph 4386, Revised Statutes of Arizona, and under the provisions of said paragraph any person violating the above order is guilty of a misdemeanor and is punishable by a fine of not more than One Hundred ($100.00) Dollars or by imprisonment not to exceed thirty (30) days or by both said fine and imprisonment. Dated this 26th day of November, 1918. By order of the City Board of Health, H. K. Beauchamp, City Health Officer." (Arizona Republican; Phoenix; November 28, 1918.)

At Tucson, masks were required on November 23. "Any person violating the order ... would be fined not less than $10 nor more than $50, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than 30 days." (Daily Morning Oasis; Nogales; November 23, 1918; from Tucson.)

November 2: "Dug's Dope: See by the papers that the grip of influenza is loosening. ... I'm just as uncomfortable behind my gas mask as I was the day I started to wear the durn thing." (Verde Copper News; November 2, 1918.)

"Dug's Dope: Don't tell me that it doesn't pay to advertise. In this column a few nights ago [before October 30] I voiced a fervent wish for a flu mask that wouldn't shrink when boiled. Ray Lane, of Clarkdale, came to the rescue with a commendable promptness and dispatch, sending up the cutest little muslin protector with a genuine copper wire at the upper edge. Thanks Ray!" "Min's Muck: The pleasin' fact is that Dug's quit wearin' his patent floo trap and has got around to a nice white rag like the rest of us." (Verde Copper News; November 5, 1918.)

TERRIBLE STATE OF AFFAIRS ALONG THE SANTA FE RAILROAD

"From reliable sources it was learned yesterday afternoon that the influenza along the Santa Fe was traveling westward at a rapid rate, with Flagstaff as the heaviest sufferer with a total death rate during the past week of 75, and 700 afflicted. The Ideal Hotel, one of the largest in the north, has been taken over by official authority and converted into a hospital, some of the smaller rooms having as many as 3 patients. County Attorney Wilson has closed his office and is now at the head of the big relief work, and is personally nursing many cases. Other noble acts are mentioned in which prominently known women and men are sacrificing themselves to exposure to assist in wiping out this dread scourge. If the situation is not improved by Sunday night Flagstaff is to go under quarantine, was the decision reached Saturday afternoon." The 1920 Census lists the population of Flagstaff as 3,186.

"From Winslow came the encouraging news yesterday that deaths during the past 2 days had numbered 4, with about 400 people stricken. In the public school hospital there were 74 under treatment. It is believed the peak has been passed, no new cases being reported yesterday." The 1920 Census of Winslow lists the population as 3,730.

"The situation at Holbrook was not learned, and the 20 afflicted are reported to be convalescing." The 1920 Census lists the population of Holbrook as 1,206.

"From Williams came the report of 400 mild cases developing up to Saturday at noon, but the number of deaths were small. The seriousness of the situation is also shown by a committee meeting at which it was decided to quarantine. The mild nature of the disease is stated to be the forerunner of what soon will develop into a serious situation, and a similar condition prevailing at Winslow, Flagstaff, Holbrook, and other towns when the disease first made its appearance." The 1920 Census lists the population of Williams as 1,350.

(Weekly Journal-Miner; October 23, 1918; from Sunday's Daily.)

Kingman Quarantine: The County Board of Health of Mohave County ordered "that all persons ... are prohibited from entering Kingman, ... except by emergency permission. ... All persons in the town of Kingman shall submit to nose and throat spraying at least twice each day." (Mohave County Miner; October 19, 1918.) The 1920 Census lists the population of Kingman as1,276. "Kingman has quarantined against influenza. They had only 1 case, but the authorities believe that is enough." (Coconino Sun; Flagstaff; October 25, 1918.)

Flagstaff, November 10: "Dr. Wilson, who was in the midst of one of the most severe influenza epidemics, related many of his experiences. ... Fifty per cent of the population of Flagstaff had contracted the influenza, he said. Since October 1 there had been 100 deaths, he said." (Arizona Republican; Phoenix; November 10, 1918.)

JEROME HEALTH SURVEY IS SATISFACTORY IN THE EXTREME, OCTOBER 31

"Fewer cases of influenza than were expected were disclosed by the health survey at Jerome made under the direction of Mrs. John L. Lane, representing the Board of Health. ... The number of cases, including convalescents and patients who have recovered as well as those who are now actually ill with influenza is slightly in excess of 320." This does not included deaths [18 named and 2 not named in the newspapers], however, so the actual number of Jeromites stricken with the disease must be around 400. ... In other places of approximately the same population many more people have been infected with influenza. With the addition of 6 patients, there were 70 patients at the Emergency Hospital, all in fair condition. "Absolutely no apprehension is felt for any of the 51 patients at the main hospital." Dr. Carlson continues to feel encouraged, and said, "Every case must be reported immediately to a physician and it will be a great deal better for the community if every patient is taken to the hospital as soon as he shows symptoms of the disease. Otherwise a number of people are going to contract influenza while nursing relatives and friends." (Verde Copper News; October 31, 1918.)

ELECTION, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 1918

"Min's Muck: Can't hardly make up my mind to believe that we're goin' to have an election next Tuesday. There ain't no bands nor no speakin' nor nuthin' at all worth while." (Verde Copper News; November 2, 1918.)

"When influenza gained a foothold in Jerome, Tobe Bowser was one of the very first to volunteer his services. He was assigned to the pneumonia ward at the hospital and for more than a week he scarcely closed his eyes. To Bowser was assigned the task of holding the violent, delirious patients in bed. Through many a long night he wrestled with pneumonia victims and his tireless, uncomplaining work was effective in saving several lives. The doctors all say that he was the best volunteer assistant they had. ... He is janitor at one of the school buildings and among all the pupils Tobe is an extremely popular individual. ... Tobe Bowser, Republican nominee for Constable of Jerome precinct, is up at the United Verde hospital instead of being out among the voters, which is the proper place for a candidate just before election. The dismissal of the schools, however, disarranged his plans for campaigning through the children. ... In spite of the flu, Bowser is still very much in the race." (Verde Copper News; Saturday, November 2, 1918.) He was elected.

"At hourly intervals, every polling place in the Verde District will be sprayed with disinfectants to prevent the spread of influenza. According to Dr. A. C. Carlson, city health officer, and to Dr. John W. Flinn, the county health officer, there will be absolutely no danger of contracting the disease at the polls. Here in Jerome masks will be worn the same as usual, of course. Election officers are planning to do everything possible to expedite the voting and prevent crowding. Citizens can help a great deal by voting in the morning and not waiting until the day shift leaves the mines at 4 o'clock. ... The polling places will be open at 6 o'clock in the morning and remain open until 6 in the evening." (Verde Copper News; Monday, November 4, 1918.)

Election day was cold and there was snow. Many people did not vote.

The Hospitals: "There were still about 90 patients in the Emergency Hospital" on November 2. "Detailed figures given out November 5 at the Emergency Hospital show that 37 cases have developed this month and that 46 patients have been discharged. ... There were 69 influenza patients at the hospital" and all are expected to recover. "Slackening of efforts now might result in a second wave of influenza such as has been the experiences in Winslow and Flagstaff." (Verde Copper News; November 5, 1918.) "There were 58 influenza patients in the Emergency Hospital and 5 other patients suffering from pneumonia. Dr. A. C. Carlson this morning closed 2 more of the outside buildings that had been used for the accommodation of patients. One was closed several days ago and now only 2 are being utilized, in addition to the main building. In all probability they will be closed and there will be no patients outside the main building by the end of the week." (Verde Copper News; November 6, 1918.)

Harborers of Crowds Fined: "Five pool hall proprietors, arrested by the city police last night for violating the quarantine regulations by allowing the congregation of crowds in their places of business, appeared before Police Judge W. S. Adams and paid fines." Fines of $10 were assessed to 3, the others paid $5 and $20." (Verde Copper News; November 7, 1918.)

Masks: "The authorities issued a warning today against getting careless about the mask order. Though no one has appeared on the street without a mask for several days, a growing disposition to wear masks carelessly is apparent. The police are likely to be less lenient in the future than they have been in the past." (Verde Copper News; November 7, 1918.)

The United States Guards: "Eight of the soldiers and one of the lieutenants belonging to the detachment of United States Guards, quarantined in the old hospital (#2) building, are now down with influenza. Two of them had influenza early in the epidemic and were discharged as cured over a week ago." (Verde Copper News: November 6, 1918.) "One of the soldiers who have been acting as quarantine guards on the roads leading into Clarkdale, is himself a victim of influenza. He died at the [Clarkdale] Country Club Hospital." (Verde Copper News; November 8, 1918.)

Hospitals: There were 51 patients at the Emergency Hospital on November 8. There were 73 patients at both hospitals, with 9 in serious condition on November 9. The quarantine may be lifted. "This does not mean that the churches, moving picture shows, and schools will be reopened or that the mask order will be rescinded, but that the ban on free passage in and out of the camp will be removed. ... A police officer is stationed constantly at the door of the Post Office now to prevent crowds from congregating therein and spreading influenza." (Verde Copper News; November 9, 1918.)

NO CELEBRATION NOVEMBER 11 ("Victory Day" became "Veterans Day," a national holiday.)

"Min's Muck: Only cloud on our happiness was that cussed floo made it impossible for us to tear loose and have a real celebration." (Verde Copper News; November 11, 1918.)

"Because of the influenza epidemic, no celebration of the peace news was held in Jerome. The whistles at the big mines screeched, however, and most of the business houses flung American flags to the breeze. Everybody was wearing a broad smile behind his flu mask. No surprise was expressed, as everyone has known for weeks that Germany must soon come to the terms of the Allies." (Verde Copper News; November 11, 1918.)

JEROME QUARANTINE IS LIFTED BY HEALTH OFFICER NOVEMBER 11

"The quarantine imposed upon Jerome October 15 was lifted by Dr. A. C. Carlson. Clarkdale, Cottonwood, and Verde [Clemenceau] remain under quarantine. Anyone desiring to travel through those towns on business will be issued a pass. Passes will be issued to hunters. ... If caught in any of the quarantined settlements they will be interred there till all restrictions are discontinued. An officer appointed by the city health department will inspect incoming passengers at Jerome Junction and turn back any having symptoms of influenza." (Verde Copper News; November 11, 1918.)

Hospitals: There were 58 patients under treatment on November 12. There were "no new cases in the last 24 hours and the number of patients under treatment at both hospitals had shrunk to 42," with 17 at the Emergency Hospital on November 13. (Verde Copper News; November 13, 1918.)

EDITORIAL: THE INFLUENA

"After taking a toll of death that is far from pleasant to contemplate, it seems possible to say with some degree of confidence that Jerome has seen the end, or at least the beginning of the end of the influenza epidemic"

"In this connection, the 'Verde Copper News' feels that a word of commendation is due first of all to the doctors who have labored so faithfully and so well to combat the disease and who have won for themselves the undying gratitude of the entire camp. With no thought for themselves, they have labored night and day for our good and have suffered, cheerfully and willingly, every sort of inconvenience and have run every conceivable risk in the performance of their duty."

"The noble men and women who have assisted the doctors so effectively by their services as nurses and in similar capacities must also be remembered gratefully. Without them, the doctors would have been helpless to wage the battle with any degree of success and but for their services, the epidemic might well have taken many times the toll it did. Some of them have paid the supreme sacrifice by laying down their lives for the community."

"And finally, a word of commendation must be said for every man and woman in the camp --- for all have cheerfully and willingly complied with every order the health authorities have found necessary to issue and all have put the public good above their private comfort and private interests. The merchants in every line of business have suffered heavy financial losses by reason of the epidemic and those who operate pool halls, soft drink stands, theaters, and similar businesses have suffered the practical cessation of their opportunities for gain for several weeks. That they did so willingly and without complaint is the more reason that their conduct should receive public notice."

"That the epidemic has been fought so successfully is due to the combined activities of all the inhabitants of the camp and while the experience has been a dear one, it has at least taught us the value of thoroughly concerted action. It now remains to continue the exercise of every possible precaution in order that there may be no recurrence of the trouble --- and the people of the camp may be trusted to see to this."

(Verde Copper News; Ernest Douglas, Managing Editor; Wednesday, November 13, 1918.)

Emergency Hospital Closed November 15: "The number of influenza patients under treatment at the hospital rose from 41 to 44." Authorities warn that today's cold rainy weather may bring on another wave of influenza. "Only 14 patients remained in the Emergency Hospital this morning. About half of them will be discharged this afternoon and the other half removed to the United Verde hospital." (Verde Copper News; November 15, 1918.)

"Min's Muck: I'm strong for masks, when I read what's happenin' in places where doctors didn't make the people use 'em." ... (Verde Copper News; November 16, 1918.)

Clarkdale had about 600 influenza cases, with 50 cases developing into pneumonia by November 18, 1918.

At Jerome, there were 23 influenza patients under treatment and 1 new case on November 18. There were 21 patients on November 21, 1918.

Dr. and Mrs. Riley Shrum, former Prescott residents, visited Prescott on Sunday, December 15. "Dr. Shrum states that the flu epidemic has practically passed by. Only a few isolated cases are known." (Weekly Journal-Miner; December 18, 1918.)

Reports about teachers returning to Jerome seem to indicate schools reopened before or just after Christmas, which was on a Wednesday in 1918.

DEATHS IN ARIZONA: The Board of Health for Arizona issued a report for the year ending December 3, 1918. There were 6,607 deaths. "Influenza carried away 511, while bronchial pneumonia carried away 1,987, ... no doubt due to influenza which developed into pneumonia. ... Tuberculosis of the lungs took 1,063. ... Nearly half of the deaths were due to respiratory diseases. ... Diarrheal disease in children under 2 years took 557, and epidemic disease in young and old took 511. Automobile accidents claimed 120 victims. ... The number of deaths in children under 14 years of age was 1,805, or 27%." (Mohave County Miner; Kingman; September 6, 1919.)

See: The Verde Independent; "The Killer Flu of 1918;" by Helen Peterson; October 20, 2009. "1918 Influenza: Hidden History Revealed by Deaths;" October 24, 2013. "1918 Influenza Pandemic: Verde Valley;" April 20,2020.

THE FLU-TRAP HOUR

Between the dark and the daylight,

When the sun surrenders his power,

Comes a stir in the day's occupations

That is known as the flu-trap hour.

When Mother has done the dishes

While Dad by the fireside basks,

She calls to all of us children

That it's time to collect our masks.

All over the house we patter

In search of our soiled flu-traps;

Through parlor and hall and bedroom,

And down to the cellar, perhaps.

And when all the traps are collected

We gather around our Ma.

Then she hands to us each a pipkin*

The biggest of all to Pa.

We fill the pipkins with water,

The flu-traps we plunge therein;

On the stove we carefully place them,

Then stand with an anxious grin.

When all the pipkins are boiling

Our father pulls out his watch,

For this is a delicate contract

That we cannot afford to botch.

At the end of ten weary minutes

We hang up the traps to dry.

Then thankfully seek our couches,

For the flu-trap hour is by.

By Ernest Douglas, Managing Editor, (Verde Copper News; November 15, 1918.)

* A small earthenware pot or pan, usually with a handle.

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